This would be the broadest question I ever answered in this helpdesk.
This is actually what our whole website is about. Please feel free to browse and read most everything.
Also, talking about formal education in data/voice cabling, I definitely advise you to look at BICSI website. It's one of the most prominent organizations in this field. They hold plenty of courses on copper and fiber voice and data cabling. If you are interested in cabling, you'll definitely find it useful:
Dmitri Abaimov, RCDD